1984 By George Orwell
In the book "1984" Orwell criticizes totalitarianism of all types and brings up questions concerning social status of citizens and the role of politics in the society. Orwell depicts events, experience, time, memories through different "frames" and symbols to force the reader to think over deeply the message of the novel. Orwell rests his novel on three "pillars" themes: the paperweight, the ministry's pyramids and Goldstein's book that have ulterior motives unveiled throughout the novel. These symbols seem deferent, but they are closely connected with each other being marks of totalitarianism and personal freedom.
The paperweight symbolizes the past for Winston who tries to remember those days without the Party. "Actually the idea had first floated into his head in the form of a vision, of the glass paperweight mirrored by the surface of the gateleg table"(Orwell, Chapter 4, Part II). The paperweight symbolizes dreams of freedom for Winston and the desire to make a connection with a past ruined by the Party. Orwell incorporates this symbol as an object of the past that reminds events and excites feelings. The choice of an antique shop where Winston bought paperweight is not accidental. It means that the Party cannot control memories of people, and there are some places and things important for people. "It's a little chunk of history that they've forgotten to alter. It's a message from a hundred years ago, if one knew how to read it" (Orwell, Chapter 4, Part II). Orwell underlines that freedom and memories means much more than the absence of physical coercion. On an even larger scale, the paperweight can be looked upon as a sacrifice for liberty and freedom for all characters of the novel who suffered under the sinful hand of the Party. "The paperweight was the room he was in, and the coral was Julia's life and his own, fixed in a sort of eternity at the heart of the crystal" (Orwell, Chapter 4, Part II).
Orwell incorporates the symbol of the paperweight with the symbol of Goldstein's book as the object of the future and the manifesto of the revolution. In contrast to the paperweight which symbolizes the past, Goldstein's book symbolizes the future hopes for freedom and personal independence. Goldstein's book describes the history and gives a theory of social classes "The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism". According to this book "war is peace" (Orwell, Chapter 3, Part, I). The meaning of this book can be compared with the Bible because it promulgates new vision of the world and new values. It is a code for every revolutionist who fights for freedom and absence of the Party's control. The phrases that "It was a book without a title" (Orwell, Chapter 1, Part I) means that everyone has to think over the history and finds his own interpretation of it, namely to create his own title of the book. "Neither the Brotherhood nor the book was a subject that any ordinary Party member would mention if there was a way of avoiding it" (Orwell, Chapter 1, Part I).
The symbol of ministry's pyramids embodies ephemeral strength of the Party. They symbolize the present time and, to some extent, symbolize the structure of the society with the Party on the top. The pyramids are rested on a strong base, population, which is controlled by the Party, and if this strong base is shacked, the pyramids will fall in like a house of cards. "It would be quite simple to waste the surplus labor of the world by building temples and pyramids, by digging holes and filling them up again, or even by producing vast quantities of goods and then setting fire to them" (Orwell, Chapter 9, Part II). Orwell incorporates this symbol as a reality which people do not want to see and understand, in spite of the fact that ministry's pyramids are visual objects, but people are "blind" to see the truth.
It is possible to conclude that Orwell skillfully joins three elements together as absolute keys to any further advancement towards ultimate goal of freedom to enjoy personal liberties. Past, present and future is a single whole because nobody can live without memories, hopes and expectations that have a direct impact on the present. The three symbols help to unite people and time frames, and as the most important, they join the broken peaces of the personality.
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