Total Productive Maintenance: The Way Of Excellence

by Gaurav Doshi - Date: 2006-11-30 - Word Count: 2808 Share This!

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program which includes a newly described concept for keeping in up to date conditions of plants and equipment. The goal of any Total Productive Maintenance program is to reduce losses attached to equipment maintenance or, in other words, keep equipment generating only good product, as fast as promising with no unexpected downtime and at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction.

TPM carries maintenance into a basic and significant role in to the business. It is no longer considered as a non-profit movement. The goal is to hold catastrophe and unplanned maintenance to a lowest level and to confirm the machinery and equipment availability to manufacture products for the end customer. By reducing rework, slow operating equipment and downtime, maximum value is added at the lowest cost. The basic purpose of TPM is to execute 'perfect manufacturing'.

TPM - History

TPM is a pioneering Japanese model. While preventive maintenance was established in Japan, the origin of TPM can be emerged. However some belief is that the theory of preventive maintenance was taken from USA. Nippondenso was the foremost company to commenced preventive maintenance in 1960 for their plant. Preventive maintenance is the perception wherein, workers created goods applying machines and the maintenance group was devoted with work of looking after those machines, however with the moderation of Nippondenso, maintenance became a setback as further maintenance personnel were needed. So the management determined that the habitual maintenance of equipment would be operated by the operators. Maintenance group took up only essential maintenance works.

Thus with preventive maintenance Nippondenso also added Autonomous maintenance by production operators. For enlightening consistency in the equipment the maintenance team arranged equipment modification and ultimately it leads to maintenance prevention. Hence the Productive maintenance originated due to preventive maintenance with maintenance prevention and its maintainability improvement. The objective of productive maintenance was to optimize plant and equipment efficiency to attain maximum life cycle of production equipment.

Mean while, with total participation of employees, Nippon Denso made quality circles concept. Nippondenso was awarded with the renowned plant prize TPM by the Japanese Institute of Plant Engineers (JIPE) for up-warding and executing based on employee's complete involvement maintenance in maintenance programme. Nippondenso of the Toyota group became the first company to achieve the TPM certification.

The objectives behind to adopt TPM

. Evade wastage in a rapidly changing economic environment.
. Manufacturing goods without dipping product quality.
. Decrease all over operation cost.
. Make a low batch quantity at the sufficient time.
. Products delivered to the customers must be non-defective.
. Superior teamwork and complete employee participation at all levels
. Attain Zero Defects, Zero Breakdown and Zero accidents in all functional areas of the organization.

Comparison between Total Quality Management (TQM) and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

The TPM program is similar to the Total Quality Management (TQM) program in some way or other, but the approach is different. Many of the tricks and tactics such as employee empowerment, benchmarking, documentation, etc. are applied in TQM and also are used to execute and maximize Total Productive Maintenance.

The similarities between them are as follows:

1. Total dedication to the plan by the top management is necessary in both programmes
2. Employees must be authorize to set off corrective action, and
3. A long term goal must be established as TPM may take a year or more to put into practice and is an on-going process. Adjusting employee mind-set toward their job everyday jobs must take place as well.

Types of maintenance

1. Breakdown maintenance

Breakdown maintenance is a type of maintenance in which workers or employees works until the equipment fails and repairs it. Such a thing could be applied when the equipment failure does not considerably influence the procedure or production or produce any noteworthy loss other than repairing cost.

2. Preventive maintenance (1951)

It is a type of maintenance where daily the updating of equipment is done, it involves cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening and design to keep the healthy condition of equipment and stop failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment circumstance finding, to measure corrosion. Preventive maintenance is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance types.

2a. Periodic maintenance (Time based maintenance - TBM)

Time based maintenance is inspecting at regular intervals, repairing and cleaning equipment and substituting their parts to stop sudden breakdown and process problems.

2b. Predictive maintenance

Predictive maintenance is a technique in which the service life of significant component is forecasted based on assessment or judgment, in order to apply the component or section to the limit of their service life. Predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance compared to periodic maintenance. It handles slit values, by appraising and investigating data about deterioration and utilizes an observation system, intended to check circumstances through an on-line system.

3. Corrective maintenance (1957)

Corrective maintenance involves of the action in used to re-establish a failed system to ready condition in its as usual status. This generally concerns with substituting or repairing the component or part that is accountable for the failure of the overall system.

Corrective maintenance is carried out at random intervals because a component's breakdown time is not known in a prior. The objective of corrective maintenance is to re-establish the system to adequate action within the shortest achievable time. Corrective maintenance is generally operated in three steps:

. Diagnosis of the problem: Here the maintenance expert takes time to find the failed parts assess the cause of the failure of the system.

. Repair and/or alternate faulty component: Once the reason of system failure has been found out, action must be taken to address the reason, generally by substituting or repairing the components that made the failure of the system.

. Verification of the repair task: Once the components repaired or replaced maintenance expert confirms the system for effective use.

4. Maintenance prevention (1960)

It specifies the device of new equipment by keeping in mind "Prevention is better than cure". Fault in the current machines are adequately and are built-in before task of new equipment. It works on the principle.

Direct benefits of TPM

1. Increase productivity and OPE (Overall Plant Efficiency).
2. Take corrective measure steps against customer complaints.
3. Decrease the manufacturing cost.
4. Complete satisfaction of customers' (Providing the right quantity at the right time, in the needed quality.)
5. Reduce accidents.
6. Pollution control assurance

Indirect benefits of TPM

1. Superior belief level among the employees.
2. Maintain the work place clean, careful and appealing.
3. Constructive change in the approach of the operators.
4. Attain goals by 'team work' concept.
5. Horizontal maneuver of a new idea in all areas of the organization.
6. Knowledge and expertise sharing.
7 The workers dig up with a reaction of has possession of the machine.

Steps of implementing TPM in an organization

Phase I - Preliminary phase

Declaration by Management about TPM

Appropriate supportive, committed involvement of the top management required for this. Circulate it in the house magazine and should be putted on the notice board. Send formal letter to all task related individuals if necessary. Awareness programmes can be organized for all levels of employees (from top level to bottom level).

Initial learning process for TPM

Training programme to be prepared according to the individual's involvement or based on the requirement.

Establish TPM team

TPM comprise perfection, self-directed maintenance, quality maintenance etc., an individual and group committees are set up to take care of all those requirements.

Setting up the TPM functioning structure and target

Each group assigned with the relevant targeted job for the achievement of fixed target.

A master plan implemented to improve organizational culture

Next step is to implement and executing a master plan wherein TPM grow to be an organizational culture.

Phase II - Launching phase

Launching a TPM by inviting all employees including sister concern establishments, associated companies and it is one kind of good practice to invite all.

Phase - III: Implementing phase

In this stage the activities are brought out by main pillars in the progress of TPM action. These pillars are intended for the production efficiency, initial control method of new products and equipment, improving the effectiveness of administration and are for control of safety, sanitation as working environment etc.

Phase: IV - Institutionalizing phase to attain high organizational culture

By gradual progress of the above activities, if one would have arrived at maturity stage adopt a change to make high organizational culture by giving recognition, PM award etc.

Seiri - Sort out

This denotes categorizing and organizing the items as significant, regularly utilized items, inadequate, or items that are not required as of at the present moment. Useless items can be put away. Significant items should be set aside for the use nearby and items that are not be utilized in near future, should be stocked at other place. So, here the worth of the item should be determined according to the usefulness and not cost. As an out come, the hunting time is reduced.

Seiton - Organize

It states that "Each and every item has a place and just only and only one place". The items after utilizing for work should be to be found back at similar place. To spot out items without difficulty, name plates and colored tags has to be utilized.

Seiso - Cleaning up workplace

This entails cleaning the work place must be free of dust, grease, oil, waste etc which means housekeeping.

Seiketsu - Standardization

Employees have to talk about mutually and putted in the practice some standards for maintaining the work place, machines and roads neat and clean. These standards are executed for whole organization and are checked arbitrarily.

Shitsuke - Self-discipline

Taking into account of 5S as a manner of life and made self-discipline amongst the employees of the organization. This covers wearing badges, following work methods, punctuality, devotion to the organization etc.

Pillar 2 - Jishu Hozen (Autonomous maintenance)

This pillar is driving up-warding workers to be capable to secure small maintenance tasks, thus acquittal the trained maintenance people to use up time on more value added action and technical upkeep.


1. Continuous function of equipments.
2. Adaptable worker to function and keep ready other equipments.
3. Removing the imperfections at foundation through effective employee participation.
4. Stage wise execution of JH actions.

Jishu Hozen's objectives

To stop broken up operation, decrease fuel consumption, decrease process time, increase efficiency and application of use of Jishu Hozen.

Stages in Jishu Hozen

1. Training of employees
2. Preliminary cleaning of machines
3. Obtain counteract measures
4. Set-up provisional JH standards
5. Common inspection
6. Self-directed inspection
7. Standardization and
8. Self-governing management.

Pillar 3 - Kaizen

"Kai" denotes change, and "Zen" denotes good (for the better). Basically kaizen is for small improvements, but accepted on a frequent basis and entail all people in the organization. Kaizen is just opposite to big amazing modernization. Kaizen needs zero or little investment. The belief behind is that "a huge number of little improvements are shift became helpful in an organizational environment than a little improvements of great value. This pillar is designed for dropping sufferers in the workplace that involve efficiencies. By applying a comprehensive and systematic method it remove losses in an organized technique with a range of Kaizen tools. These tricks are not restricted to production areas but also put into practice in administrative areas as well.

Kaizen Guiding principle

1. Perform hypothesis of zero losses in every area of action.
2. Persistent chase to attain cost reduction targets in all resources.
3. Persistent chase to develop over all plant equipment efficiency.
4. Maximize use of PM analysis as a tool for removing losses.
5. Concentrate on easy handling methods.

Objective of Kaizen

To attain and maintain zero loses with regards to slight stops, measurement and adjustments, defects and unavoidable downtimes.

Methods applied in Kaizen

1. PM examination
2. Why - Why examination
3. Review of losses
4. Kaizen record
5. Kaizen review sheet.

Pillar 4 - Planned Maintenance

It is designed to carry out difficult-free machines and equipments manufacturing deficiency free goods for total customer satisfaction. This divides furtherer into four groups.

1. Preventive Maintenance
2. Breakdown Maintenance
3. Corrective Maintenance
4. Maintenance Prevention

With Planned Maintenance we build up attempts from a reactive to a proactive technique and apply it to train maintenance workforce.


1. Attain and maintain accessibility of machines.
2. Maximum maintenance cost.
3. Decrease spares stock.
4. Recover steadfastness and maintainability of machines.


1. To get equipment failure and break down level at zero.
2. Develop steadfastness and maintainability.
3. Decrease maintenance cost.
4. Making sure of availability of spares all the time.

Six steps in planned maintenance

1. Equipment assessment and charting present status.
2. Making sound information management system.
3. Organize time based information system, opting equipment, parts and members and draw a plan.
4. Set up predictive maintenance system by setting up equipment diagnostic techniques.
5. Appraisal of planned maintenance.

Pillar 5 - Quality maintenance

It is objected towards customer satisfaction by providing superior quality through deficiency free manufacturing practice. The concentration is made on removing non-conformances in a systematic manner, much like attentive development. Shift is made from reactive to proactive (Quality Control to Quality Assurance) quality maintenance procedure.

Pillar 6 - Training

It is objected to have multi-skilled refreshed employees whose morale is high and who has keen to come to work and carry out all necessary role successfully and independently. Education and training is provided given to workers to improve their skill. It is not enough know only "Know-How" by they should also be trained "Know-why". By experience they can achieve "Know-How" to conquer a trouble what to be made.

Pillar 7 - Office Total Productive Maintenance

Office TPM should be in progress after stimulating four pillars of TPM (JH, KK, QM, and PM). Office TPM must be ensured to develop output, effectiveness in the administrative roles and recognize and remove losses. This covers examine processes and measures towards increased office automation.

How office TPM functions

Any head of the department carry out operation e.g. Head of Finance, MIS, Purchase etc should be a leader of the sub-committee. Members on behalf of all support functions and people from Production & Quality should be integrated in sub committee. It co-ordinate plans and provides guidance to sub committee by:

1. Offering awareness schedule about office TPM to all support departments
2. Recognize the possibility for progress in each function
3. Gather significant data
4. Assist them to work out problems in their circles
5. Craft an action panel where progress is observed on both sides - results and actions along with Kaizens
6. Stimulating all employees and circles in all functions.

Benefits of Office TPM

1. Participation of all employees in confirming functions for spotlighting on superior plant performance
2. Improved applied work area
3. Decrease repetitive work
4. Decreased inventory levels in all parts of the supply chain
5. Decreased administrative costs
6. Decreased inventory carrying cost
7. Decreasing in file numbers
8. Decreasing of overhead costs
9. Effective output of people in support functions
10. Decreasing office equipment breakdown
11. Decreasing customer complaints, improve customer satisfaction
12. Decreasing expenses due to emergency send offs/procurement
13. Decreased manpower
14. Dirt free and enjoyable work place.

Supports of office TPM with regards plant TPM

Office TPM maintains the plant, primarily in liability Jishu Hozen of the machines (after providing training of Jishu Hozen), as in Jishu Hozen at the 1. Preliminary phases machines are maximum and manpower is minimum used, so the help of administrative departments can be used, for this 2. Office TPM can remove the loads

Pillar 8 - Health, environment and safety issues

This is dealt with zero accident, zero health damage and zero fires issues. The area is focused on to make a safe workplace and a nearby area that is not smashed by any process or procedures. This pillar will perform a vigorous role in each of the other pillars on a habitual basis.

A committee is set up for this pillar which included delegates of administrator as well as workers. The committee is leaded by senior vice President (Technical). Utmost significance to safety is provided in the plant. To make attentiveness amongst employees a variety of contest like safety slogans, Quiz, Drama, Posters, etc. related to safety can be prepared at expected period.

TPM awards in textile industry

Milliken & Company, manufacturer of variety of fabric, yarn and chemical products has received many prestigious awards worldwide. It has received the British Standards Institute for Excellence in Quality and also achiever of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, and the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance TPM Excellence Award in 1999.

In 2003 and 2004, fabric manufacturer, Hirdaramani of Sri Lanka won the Taiki Akimoto 5S Awards - Merit Awards

Thai Rayon Public Co. Ltd. Thailand, won TPM Excellence Award in 2002, it is a group company of Aditya Birla Group of India, it is the first Viscose Rayon Staple Fiber company to received the TPM Excellence Award in 2002 by JIPM (Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance), Japan.


Today, in changing scenario, struggle in industry all time at a great height, Total Productive Maintenance may be the only tool that sets a standard for the successful companies. And from above, the number of companies is showing their better result in the world wide market and their great achievement shows that the program works. It can be further modified to effort not only for industrial plants, but in construction, building maintenance, transportation, and in a various circumstances.

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