Advancements in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Sciences


by Adriana J Noton - Date: 2010-10-28 - Word Count: 513 Share This!

Human civilization the most developed civilization on earth and it is due to medicine and pharmaceutical manufacturing sciences. Prehistoric man used herbs and plants around him to treat diseases and injuries. From that period pharmacy has greatly developed.

Pharmacy and pharmaceutical developing dates back to 6th century B. C. Sumerians used tablets for curing diseases during 6th century B. C. Use of a medicine called ARIANA is mentioned in Sushruta Samhita, a literature in Indian Ayurveda. Pharmaceutical works can be found in many ancient civilizations. Pharmaceutical manufacturing techniques can be found on Egyptian papyrus scrolls around 15th -16th century B. C. Use of pharmaceutical drugs can be found in Chinese ancient book Shennong Bencao Jing during reign of Han dynasty in 1st century A. D.

Greek pharmacist Pedanius Dioscoridens wrote a book called De Materia Medica related to various pharmaceutical products and their manufacturing. During 7th-9th century A. D., pharmacists and pharmacy stores emerged in Japan and middle-eastern countries. As pharmacy is combined application of chemistry and biology, with development of biology and chemistry, pharmacy was developed in middle-east.

Zakaria Rhazes, Zahrawi, Sabur Ibn Sahl around 865-1013 A. D gave details of use of various medicines. During 973-1050 A. D. Al Biruni wrote on pharmaceutical manufacturing sciences in his book called Kitab-Al-Saydalah, in which he gave good description of properties of different drugs. Al Muwaffaq wrote how oxides and silicic acid can be used in treatment of diseases. Also he worked on toxic compounds like copper compounds during 10th century A. D.

Europeans developed pharmacy shops around 12th century. The oldest working pharmacy store is in Tries, Germany. It was opened in 1241. European cities like Croatia opened pharmacies in 1317 and are still working. As people came to know about diseases like rabies, smallpox, etc., people started working on drugs or vaccines against such diseases. Edward Jenner pioneered the field of vaccination. He created small pox vaccine using his discovery of cow pox virus providing immunity against small pox virus.

With the development in technology in 20th century, drugs were produced on large scale. In decade of 1950 drugs were manufactured considering human anatomy. Drugs like valium, paracetamol, etc. Were manufactured in 1960. During 1980s, many new pharmaceutical manufacturing companies came together forming big pharmaceutical companies.

Lipitor, a cholesterol pill produced by Pfizer is best selling drug today. Also drugs like heartburn pill called Astra-Zeneca and Asthma inhaler called Advair are also sold in great numbers. Johnson and Johnson, glaxo smith Kline, Bayer, cipla, etc. Are leading pharmaceutical manufacturers.

Safety and reliability can be seen in todays drugs. Drugs are tested in laboratories and from the conclusions, amount of dose, expiry date and age limit is decided. Todays pharmaceutical manufacturing companies work on safety rules and terms and conditions accepted universally. Different types of drugs like oral tablets, capsules, syrups or injectables are available.

Pharmaceutical sciences will be of great importance in future. Even today there is no cure on diseases like AIDS and cancer. Many medicines have side effects. New diseases like swine flu and bird flu are emerging. Hence, it is essential to develop pharmaceutical manufacturing sciences further.


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